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BaaS for LEV-Sharing

ruhrvalley - Battery as a Service Light Electrical Vehicle-Sharing

Studies on Battery as a Service as a sustainable energy supply concept for shared Light Electric Vehicles (BaaS for LEV-Sharing). A project funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) as part of the support programme Strong Universities of Applied Sciences - Impulse for the Region (FH-Impuls). 

The project is part of the ruhrvalley network, an association of companies and universities in the Ruhr area, which pursue the common goal of creating safe and trustworthy technology for the mobility and energy sectors. 

The aim of the project is to research sustainable concepts for the energy supply of micromobiliy sharing services by February 2021, to develop prototypes and to test them using demonstrators. With the concepts examined, the project aims to contribute to a climate-friendly transport shift. A pilot project for e-scooter sharing with demonstrators for different energy supply concepts is being implemented in cooperation with local partners - including the Stadtwerke Bochum (municipal utilities) - to collect data and to test the system in real-life situations. The research questions concern the potential of energy supply concepts to reduce the environmental impact of transport, the opportunities for integrating renewable energies, as well as social aspects of sustainability through acceptance research.

For this project, the Bochum University of Applied Sciences is working closely with the power supplier Stadtwerke Bochum and Swobbee.

The following work packages are being addressed within the project: 

  • Collection and analysis of concepts for energy supply of LEV-Sharing 

  • Identification of criteria for measuring the social acceptance and sustainability of LEVs, sharing and Energy-as-a-Service 

  • Testing and research on modular off-grid solar stations

  • Testing and research on battery charging and changing stations

  • Definition of requirements for a business model for the sustainable energy supply of LEV-Sharing

  • Network building with relevant stakeholders, such as mobility and energy service providers, public relations and publications 

Following this exploratory project, a further project within the Ruhrvalley network is planned. The aim is then to develop and implement - on the basis of the exploratory project - concrete technical solutions for the smart and sustainable energy supply of LEV sharing services based on Battery as a Service concepts. These solutions should stand out from existing concepts, in particular through the integration of renewable power supply, the upgrading of charging stations for off-grid operation with solar modules and storage systems and the development of software and block chain solutions for handling payment and usage processes.



Publications within the project
  • Schelte, N., Severengiz, S., Schünemann, J., Finke, S., Bauer, O., Metzen, M., “Life Cycle Assessment on Electric Moped Scooter Sharing,” Sustainability, vol. 13, no. 15, p. 8297, 25 July 2021. DOI:
  • Wittek, K., Finke, S., Schelte, N., Pohlmann, N., Severengiz, S., „A Crypto-Token Based Charging Incentivization Scheme for Sustainable Light Electric Vehicle Sharing", IEEE European Technology & Engineering Management Summit, Dortmund, 18-20 March 2021. DOI:
  • Schelte, N., Straßberger, H., Severengiz, S., Finke, S., Felmingham, B., „Environmental impact of off-grid solar charging stations for urban micromobility services", IEEE European Technology & Engineering Management Summit, Dortmund, 18-20 March 2021. DOI:
  • Severengiz, S., Schelte, N., & Bracke, S., „Analysis of the environmental impact of e-scooter sharing services considering product reliability characteristics and durability”, Procedia CIRP 2021, 96, pp. 181–188, 10 February 2021. DOI:


Semih Severengiz
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Semih Severengiz
Room: D 3-03

Funding reference: